The Bitcoin memory pool (mempool) is experiencing a significant surge in unconfirmed transactions, with more than 225,000 pending transactions as of May 2, according to mempool.space data. This increase pushes the mempool’s size to over 580 MB, which is nearly double the 300 MB limit. The current number of unconfirmed transactions parallels the peak observed in 2017, which caused considerable network congestion and, in some cases, transactions took over 48 hours to process.
The efficiency of the Bitcoin network primarily relies on the number of transactions processed at a given time, with miners confirming transactions before they are included in a block. The mempool serves as a “waiting bay” for valid transactions, and each node connected to the network syncs to the mempool, keeping updated with its status.
Transaction confirmation can take hours, depending on network activity and applicable fees. Transactions that remain in the mempool for over 48 hours are typically dropped—returned to the sender—while confirmed transactions are removed and added to a block. The recent spike in pending transactions aligns with the heightened demand for the Bitcoin network.
On May 1, the platform processed over 568,000 transactions, setting a new record. However, it is worth noting that over 50% of these were inscriptions from the Bitcoin Ordinals platform. This platform allows users to attach files to Satoshis—the smallest unit of Bitcoin—effectively transforming Bitcoin into an inexpensive storage device. Each inscription is unique, akin to non-fungible tokens (NFTs) minted on smart contracting platforms like Ethereum.
The increasing number of on-chain transactions conspicuously coincides with the launch of the Bitcoin Ordinals platform in late January. As more users choose to “mint NFTs,” the demand for block space rises. This results in higher fees and an overall expansion of the Bitcoin network. Consequently, the Bitcoin network faces the challenge of coping with the influx of inscriptions, likely forcing miners to prioritize transactions based on attached fees and thus contributing to the mempool’s bloated state.
As the Bitcoin community continues to expand and explore new use cases, it remains crucial to address the sustainability and scalability of the network. While the Bitcoin Ordinals platform adds an exciting dimension, it may exacerbate existing issues, putting further strain on the mempool and potentially jeopardizing the network’s efficiency. Balancing the trade-offs between functionality and performance will be critical to secure a stable and resilient blockchain future.